# technical theory

Topics about technical

## Thursday, 1 September 2016

### Flow through Notches - Short Questions & Answers

Q.1: Define the term of notch.
Ans: A notch may be define as an opening in one side of a tank or a reservoir.
Q.2: Write down the name of types of notches.
Ans: (1) rectangular notch (2) Triangular notch
(3) Trapezoidal notch (4) Stepped notch
Q.3: Write down the advantages of triangular notch over a rectangular notch.
Ans: (1) A triangular notch gives more accurate result for low discharges than a rectangular notch.
(2) The same triangular notch can measure a wide range of flow accurately.
Q.4: Define the trapezoidal notch.
Ans: A trapezoidal notch is a combination of a rectangular notch and two triangular notches. The discharges over the such sum, of the rectangular and triangular notches.
Q.5: Define stepped notch.
Ans: A stepped notch is a combination of rectangular notches. The discharge over such a notch will be the sum of the discharges over the different rectangular notches.

## Sunday, 14 August 2016

### Flow Through Notches

Flow Through Notches

**Points :**Flow Through Notches, Types of Notches, Discharge over a Rectangular Notch, Discharge. over a Triangular Notch, Advantages of a Triangular Notch over a Rectangular Notch, Discharge over a Trapezoidal Notch, Discharge over a stepped notch, Discharge over the trapezoidal notch Notches A notch may be defined as an opening in one side of a tank or a reservoirs like large orifice, with the upstream liquid level below the top edge of the opening as shown in figure. Since the top edge of the notch above the liquid kel serves i.e. purpose, therefore a notch may have only the bottom edge sides. The bottom edge, over which the Liquid flows, is known as sill or crest of the notch and the sheet of liquid flowing over a notch (or a weir) is known as nappe or vein. A notch is, usually, made of a metallic plate and is used to measure the discharge of liquid.## Sunday, 21 February 2016

### Flow Through Pipes Short Question and Answer

Flow Through Pipes Short Question and Answer

(2) Head loss due to sudden contraction.

(3) Head loss at the entrance of pipe

(4) Head loss at exit of pipe Q.2: Write down the formula of head loss in pipe fitting. Ans: hp= kv

v = velocity of flow

k = co-efficient of pipe fitting (0.5 — 0.9) Q.3: Write down the name of major head loss formulas. Ans: (1) Darcy’s formula

(2) Chezy’s formula

**Points :**Flow Through Pipes Short Question and Answer Q.1: Write down the name of minor head losses. Ans: (1) Head loss due to sudden enlargement.(2) Head loss due to sudden contraction.

(3) Head loss at the entrance of pipe

(4) Head loss at exit of pipe Q.2: Write down the formula of head loss in pipe fitting. Ans: hp= kv

^{2}/2gv = velocity of flow

k = co-efficient of pipe fitting (0.5 — 0.9) Q.3: Write down the name of major head loss formulas. Ans: (1) Darcy’s formula

(2) Chezy’s formula

### Flow Through Pipes

Flow Through Pipes

**Points :**Flow through Pipes chapter, Loss of Head in Pipes, Chezy’s formula for loss of head in pipes , Darcy Formula for loss of head in pipe, Hydraulic Gradient Line Introduction A pipe is a closed conduit, generally of circular cross-section, used to carry water or any other fluid. When the pipe is running full, the flow is under pressure. But if the pipe is not running full (as in the case of sewer pipes, culverts etc.), the flow is not under pressure. In such a case the atmospheric pressure exists inside the pipe. Loss of Head in Pipes When the water is flowing in a pipe, it experiences some resistance to its motion, whose effect is to reduce the velocity and ultimately the head of water available. Though there are many types of losses, yet the major loss is due to frictional resistance of the pipe only. The frictional resistance of a pipe depends upon the roughness of the inside surface of the pipe. It has been experimentally found that more the roughness of the inside surface of the pipe, greater will be the resistance. This friction is known as fluid friction and the resistance is known as frictional resistance.## Tuesday, 12 January 2016

### Hydronamics

Hydronamics

1 .Potential energy,

2.Kinetic energy, and

3.Pressure energy.

**Points :**hydronamics, bernoulli’s equation and its application, dynamics of fluid, energy of a liquid in motion, total head of a liquid particles in motion, bernoulli equation, limitations of bernoulli equation, practical application of bernoulli’s equation, Short Questions and Answers hydronamics Bernoulli’s Equation and its Application In the previous chapter, we have discussed the motion of liquid particles without taking into consideration any force or energy causing the flow. But in this chapter, we shall discuss me motion of liquids and the forces causing the flow. This topic is on known as Hydrodynamics. Dynamics of Fluid The dynamic of fluid flow is defined as that branch of science which deals with the study of fluids in motion considering of force which causes the flow. Energy of a Liquid in Motion The energy, in general, may be defined as the capacity to do work. Though the energy exists in many forms, yet the following are important from the subject point of view:1 .Potential energy,

2.Kinetic energy, and

3.Pressure energy.

## Wednesday, 23 December 2015

### Hydrokinematics - Short Questions & Answers

Hydrokinematics - Short Questions & Answers

**Points :**Hydrokinematics Short Questions & Answers Q.1: Define the term hydrokinematics. Ans: Hydrokinematics deals with the study of velocity and acceleration of the liquid particles without taking into consideration any force or energy. Q.2: Define the term date of discharge. Ans: The quantity of a liquid, flowing per second through a section of a pipe or a channel is known as the rate of discharge.## Friday, 18 December 2015

### Hydrokinematics

Hydrokinematics

Now consider a liquid flowing through a pipe

Let

a = Cross sectional area of the pipe, and

v = Average velocity of the liquid,

Discharge, Q = Area x Average velocity = a.v Notes: 1. If the at s in m

Q = m

2. Remember that I m 1000 liters.

Equation of continuity of a liquid flow

If an Incompressible liquid is continuously flowing through a pipe or a channel (whose cross-sectional area may or may not be constant) the quantity of liquid passing per second is the same at all sections. This is known as the equation of continuity of a liquid flow. It is the first and fundamental equation of flow.

**Points :**Hydrokinematics, Types of flow of the liquids (Hydro kinematics), Rate of Discharge, Types of flow of the liquids (Hydro kinematics): The subject of hydro kinematics deals with the study of velocity and acceleration of the liquid particles without taking into consideration any force or energy. Rate of Discharge The quantity of a liquid, flowing per second through a section of a pipe or a channel, is known as the rate of discharge or simply discharge. It is generally denoted byNow consider a liquid flowing through a pipe

Let

a = Cross sectional area of the pipe, and

v = Average velocity of the liquid,

Discharge, Q = Area x Average velocity = a.v Notes: 1. If the at s in m

^{2}and velocity in m/s then the discharge,Q = m

^{2}x m^{3}/s = cumecs2. Remember that I m 1000 liters.

Equation of continuity of a liquid flow

If an Incompressible liquid is continuously flowing through a pipe or a channel (whose cross-sectional area may or may not be constant) the quantity of liquid passing per second is the same at all sections. This is known as the equation of continuity of a liquid flow. It is the first and fundamental equation of flow.

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